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>> DoseIQ Information Brochure>> RejUVenate Information Brochure>> Comparing and optimizing ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems use for patient room terminal disinfection: an exploratory study using radiometry and commercial test cards>> Ultraviolet-C decontamination of a hospital room: amount of UV light needed>> Fluence (UV Dose) Required to Achieve Incremental Log Inactivation of Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses and Algae>> Automated room decontamination: report of a Healthcare Infection Society Working Party>> Inactivate Airborne Pathogens with UV Airstream Disinfection>> The effectiveness of UV-C radiation for facility-wide environmental disinfection to reduce health care acquired infections>> Ultraviolet C lamps for disinfection of surfaces potentially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 in critical hospital settings: examples of their use and some practical advice>> Impact of Room Location on UV-C Irradiance and UV-C Dosage and Antimicrobial Effect Delivered by a Mobile UV-C Light Device>> UV Light for Disinfection and Blue Light Hazard>> Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) monitoring made simple: Colorimetric indicators to assess delivery of UV-C light by room decontamination devices>> Killing of Candida auris by UV-C: Importance of exposure time and distance>> Mobile Room Sterilizer Dosage Chart
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Evaluation using radiometry and commercial test cards to compare 2 full size UVGI systems (Tru-D and Optimum-UV Enlight) and 2 small units (Lumalier EDU 435 and MRSA-UV Turbo-UV). The study poses the question: “…once UVGI is implemented, how can a hospital conveniently and rapidly determine if the process is optimal for the environment it is used in (is device and placement in the room optimal to limit shadowing, are cycles long enough to ensure satisfactory UVC dose, etc.)?

Some valuable, DoseIQ relevant quotes from the white paper: “While using sensors can be reassuring and limit inter-user variability, our results suggest that shorter times with more placements around the room provide essentially comparable results, using a fraction of the total time (and for a fraction of the cost). The impact on room turnaround time is worth considering.” and “Although more external validation is needed, radiometry and test cards are potentially useful low-cost objective tools that could be adjuncts if not surrogates for environmental cultures for assessment, comparison and even continuous quality control of UVGI systems.”

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A comparison of radiometers and paper dosimeters in a hospital room was made. Results showed the effect of distance and shadows on the efficacy of UVC disinfection. Recommendations are use of radiometers or dose indicating paper as Quality Controls for adequate UVC surface treatment.

One of many studies stressing the value of real-time measurement of UVC doses to reduce Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) in a hospital or other rooms. Dosimeter paper is suggested as a low cost option. However, DoseIQ is low cost AND provides high accuracy, dose measurements with cloud storage and reports for infection prevention staff.

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The tables in this paper reflect the state of UV dose knowledge, but include the variation in technique and biological response that currently exists in the absence of standardized protocols.

Tables provide references to assist IPC in setting the minimum UVC dose value of the DoseIQ.

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This report provides advice to hospital managers and infection prevention and control (IPC) teams who intend to employ automated room decontamination devices as part of their IPC regimens.

Two of the “Good Practice Points” mentioned include: 1) “Prioritize different cleaning systems to the type of infection of the most recent room occupant…”, and 2) “Monitor levels of fumigant or ultraviolet light at regular intervals during the contract to ensure efficacy.”

  1. DoseIQ easily sets new minimum doses for the room’s most recent pathogen.
  2. UVC monitoring interval with DoseIQ is with EACH treatment; thus insuring efficacy.
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A concise presentation of the factors that influence the efficacy of UV-C in HVAC air handlers and ducts. Included are linked references to ASHRAE Position Documents and other white papers.

UV-C use in HVAC systems has been widely adopted for many years. Initially, as well as currently, 254nm UV-C lamps were installed to combat the build-up of mold and other organisms on the HVAC coils. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly expanded the use of UV-C to disinfect building air “on-the-fly”. This UV Resources paper provides an overview of the factors to consider in order for air sanitizing to be effective.

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A standardized UVC treatment program for hospital acquired infections (HAI) was implemented for 125 rooms of a hospital. Significant reduction of 3 of the 5 pathogens studied was observed.

The UVC source was used on two settings – essentially a “high” and a “baseline” UVC energy output. This, coupled with no statistically relevant reduction of methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Entero-
coccus (VRE) and the conclusion that variations in staff behavior, clearly shows the need to adjust and monitor dose levels in hospital rooms to maximize UVC disinfection efficacies.

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Results from this study include: “Our results show that the spatial emission of UV-C lamps is strongly dependent on the power of the lamps and on the design of their reflectors. Only by optimizing the positioning and calculating the exposure time correctly, is it possible to dispense the dose necessary to obtain SARS-CoV-2 inactivation. In the absence of suitable equipment for measuring irradiance, the calculated irradiation time can be underestimated.” The study briefly mentions data related to photodegradation of materials exposed to UVC irradiation.

The authors warn agains using the technical specs of the lamps for calculating treatment times needed for specific UVC dose levels. Use of UVC sensitive dosimeter cards and a spectroradiometer were used to measure dosage levels in various room locations. The subjective nature of dosimeter dots, i.e. as “suggesting” and “probably”, is clearly stated by the researchers: “In all the reference positions and in 7 test positions the color of the sensitive area of the dosimeter after UVC irradiation was intermediate between light orange and dark orange or similar to dark orange, suggesting that the target dose of 37 mJ/cm2 was probably achieved.”. Clearly, DoseIQ dose measurements are superior to the author suggested solution of using colorimetric dose indicators.

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UV-C irradiance, dosage, and antimicrobial effect on MRSA, C. diff and VRE received from a mobile UV-C device varied substantially based on location in  hospital patients’ room relative to the UV-C device. Testing included various distances and orientations of the UV-C mobile unit in relation to the surface being treated. Multiple calibrated National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable UV-C sensors with wide angle lenses were used.

Test results confirm that areas not receiving direct or highly reflected UV-C exposure are substantially under-dosed. Reduced dosing levels also emphasized the widely disparate log reduction values with respect to one pathogen to another. DoseIQ’s ability to vary minimum dose levels by pathogen and by room, along with real-time radiometer quality monitoring, can overcome the disinfection challenges uncovered in the study.

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TUV-SUD, a global regulatory and independent testing company, prepared a webinar as an introduction to TUV-SUD, statements made by the CDC regarding UV light, UV light safety and other topics.

Dr. Marvin Boell, a PhD Electrical Engineer, covers a wide range of topics relevant to UV light, including UV measurement, the safe handling of consumer UVC products, and safety in general.

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UVC sensitive, colorimetric indicators were used at various fluence levels to determine the UVC dosing delivered to 27 locations in a room. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridioides difficile spores (C. diff)

Given the limited colors found on paper dosimeter dots, the wide gaps in dose from one color to the next, and the subjective nature of “reading” the colors,  measurement of UVC delivery doses by DoseIQ UVC radiometers would have certainly provided more precise results for this study.

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Tests were conducted on C. auris strains from different countries to determine the killing effectiveness of UV-C at various distances and time exposures. With half the time or double the distance, the killing efficacy of UVC was diminished by ~10 and ~50 fold, respectively.

UV-C efficacy in killing C. auris (and all other pathogens at various times and distances clearly shows the necessity for using a radiometer to measure UV-C doses when disinfecting hospital, hotel or other rooms and areas. Dosimeter dot colors are not stable over time and cannot match the mJ/cm2 of the DoseIQ radiometer.

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A chart with 254nm UVC dosage values summarizing 90% and 3-log (99.9%) pathogen reduction.

One of many documents available that provide UVC dose values for various pathogens.
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